A Context for Performance (Results) Based Training
Learner-Centered Delivery Skills and Systems
Delivery Skills that Facilitate Performance
The Importance of Feedback, Reinforcement, and Motivational Incentives
Using Media-Based Delivery Systems
Selecting Methods That Compliment Delivery Systems
Evaluation Related to Training Delivery Systems
Emerging Trends in Instructional Delivery Systems
Brenda Sugrue (2001) tells Learning Circuits how "Research has identified three stages of skill acquisition or learning: the cognitive stage, the associative stage, and the autonomous stage" (2001, ¶ 5). In the cognitive state, information is presented and learners store the material as part of tasks or skills. The associative stage enables the learner to take the information and apply it to specific situations. It also is a time for learners to identify and correct errors, beginning the process of internalizing the information. The final stage--autonomous has learners practicing the information, building a scaffolding supporting the material.
Distance learning, both synchronous and asynchronous often forgets to include activities that enable learners to internalize the material into their cognitive horizon. Distance learning, that is, learning occurring at a distance of either time or space, is often little more than linear modules with PowerPoint slides and simple quizzes. It has become a tool to present information-based learning rather that performance-based learning. Distance learning lacks the "tracking and analysis of performance patterns, diagnosis of misconceptions and faulty reasoning, and individualized feedback or coaching" (2001, ¶2) that is needed to promote the transfer of performance-based learning.
Sugrue states that information-based e-learning often only supports the cognitive leg of learning. While can include practice such as simulations and coaching for the associative leg, it rarely does. For learning to support the autonomous stage, unlimited practice under different contexts must be possible. Additionally, detailed analysis and feedback from a trainer/facilitator are also vital.
Sugrue, B., (2001). Practice makes performance. Learning Circuits. Retrieved April 21, 2003 from: http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/oct2001/sugrue.html
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